Views: 260 Author: Lydia Publish Time: 2023-10-19 Origin: Site
Keeping your employees safe from falls means never leaving anything to chance. Every component of your fall protection or prevention system must be carefully selected. You may be confident that your workers will be safe before, during, and after a fall if you establish the correct system.
You will learn why anchors are a vital aspect of fall protection, how to choose the correct equipment for your job, and how to use anchors to keep your employees safe in any industry in this book.
The structure to which the anchor or anchorage connection is attached is referred to as an anchoring. These structures differ according to industry, type of work, and jobsite. An anchorage in a warehouse, for example, could be a beam, but an anchorage on a residential construction site could be the roof.
The piece of equipment that connects the worker's fall protection system to the structure or anchoring is known as an anchorage connector. These gadgets differ depending on the application and jobsite. These are the items purchased from fall prevention equipment manufacturers.
Anchors, anchor points, and anchorage connectors are all referred to as anchorage tie-off. This phrase is commonly used to describe anchors used in a fall restraint system.
Anchorage is the structure that serves as the foundation for your fall prevention system, and anchorage connectors are the devices that connect your worker to this structure. This distinction is critical since both components are critical in fall protection.
For example, if your Competent Person informs you that your anchorage connectors can handle 5,000 lb. of force. If you don't grasp the distinction between anchorages and anchoring connectors, you might conclude that the structure at your workplace can support this weight. You could therefore employ a significantly lower weight capacity anchoring, putting your workers at risk if they fall.
Many individuals mix or conflate these two terms when discussing fall protection anchors, therefore it's critical to check for this error. As mandated by OSHA, always rely on your Competent Person to approve the proper installation of your anchorages. You can also contact a manufacturer, such as FallTech, to determine the viability of the application.
In general, a "fall protection anchor" is a set of anchors and anchorages that bind workers to the jobsite. The anchors you use and the anchorages to which you attach them will differ based on your industry, the characteristics of the jobsite, and the type of work you're conducting.
A roof anchor, for example, can be used to connect workers to the residential structure they're working on on a construction site. Workers in a larger structure may use a tie-back SRL or lanyard, which is meant to wrap around a beam and tie back to itself. Because the anchorage connector is incorporated into the lanyard, this equipment is also referred to as an anchorage system.
The reason you're employing this equipment is also important. Because fall restraint anchors will not be subjected to the same level of force as fall arrest anchors, the criteria differ depending on the application.
The weight they can withstand and who has approved the structure for use as an anchorage are the two key characteristics that distinguish certified and non-certified anchorages.
Anchorages can only be certified if they have been reviewed by a Qualified Person, according to ANSI Z359.14. The anchoring can be utilized as a certified anchorage when the Qualified Person has assessed it, determined that it meets the required load capacity, and documented their findings.
In the absence of your Qualified Person, a Competent Person can search the job site for a structure that meets the load capacity requirements for a non-certified anchor. If the structure passes the visual inspection of the Competent Person, it can be used as a temporary anchorage. However, it cannot be verified until your Qualified Person thoroughly evaluates it.
At each new location, your Qualified Person will assist you in determining a suitable anchorage. Some locations may have anchors that are already configured to accept a lanyard or anchor. If not, your Qualified Person will determine the ideal location for your anchor devices to provide maximum safety.
Anchorage possibilities that are acceptable include:
Ideally, it should be directly above the worker, reducing free fall and swing fall distance. It also lowers your minimum required fall clearance (MRFC) standards.
A Competent Person and/or a Qualified Person evaluated and approved the work.
Never used for anything else.
OSHA regulations demand anchorage strength to be twice the expected load it will have to hold during a fall.
In addition to establishing whether or not a structure is a safe anchorage choice, your Qualified Person will determine which type of anchor is best and most safe to use with it. For direct installation into a building using nails, screws, bolts, or other fasteners, a penetrating anchor, for example, is necessary. A non-penetrating anchor, on the other hand, leaves no trace of its presence on the building. Follow their specific instructions for which goods to use and where to attach them.
Based on the certification of the anchorage by a Qualified Person or Professional Engineer, your Competent Person will use various considerations to determine which anchor is ideal for your work zone. As previously said, the type of anchor you can utilize is determined by the capabilities of your anchoring. It will also depend on whether you need to arrest falls or utilize a restraint system to avoid them.
One of the most critical factors to consider is the type of substrate to which your anchor will be attached. Among the several categories are:
Your Qualified Person will also determine if a penetrating or non-penetrating anchor point is required within each of these categories. The efficiency of your fall protection system is dependent on employing the appropriate equipment for each situation, so rely on their experience to make the right option.
These anchors are intended to be attached to steel structures, such as a building's frame. Steel anchors are commonly used in the following applications:
Fixed D-ring Anchors - You have the option of using a bolt-on anchor that screws directly into the structure or a bolt-on plate anchor that includes an anchoring plate that is affixed to the structure.
Beam Clamp Anchors - If you want to be able to move your horizontal I-beam anchor point, use a clamp that latches onto the beam. I-beam clamps that can be permanently fixed on the anchorage are also available. Some beam clamps can also be attached to vertical members.
Trolley Anchors for Beams - You may also use trolley anchors to allow your workers to travel horizontally beneath the beam. These anchors have wheels that allow the device to travel along the overhead beam while still providing fall protection.
Wire-form Anchors - Use these anchors to temporarily secure workers to a round overhead structure, such as pipe racking or scaffolding.
For temporary anchors on steel structures, you can also utilize movable eyebolts and swivel rebar hooks.
Concrete anchors may be required in a variety of situations. To avoid hitting rebar, you may need to check the area before inserting your anchor, depending on the structure.
Wedge anchors - Insert these anchors into pre-drilled concrete holes. When you let go of the spring-loaded anchoring device, it securely adheres to the hole's sidewalls. This anchor can be removed and reused elsewhere.
Pour-in-place web anchors are strap anchors that are attached to rebar before pouring concrete. These temporary anchoring devices are designed to withstand abrasion during use after the concrete has hardened. When the job is done, just cut the webbing to remove it.
Rotating D-ring anchors - These devices, which are anchored into cured concrete with expansion bolts or concrete screws, provide 360° rotation to enable workers more freedom.
Roofing anchors are specifically designed for use on residential and commercial roofs. The following are examples of common types:
Roof Ridge Anchors - These triangle-shaped devices are designed to be attached directly to the roof ridge.
Field and Ridge Anchors - These anchors can be attached to flat or sloped surfaces.
Truss Anchors - These devices are fastened to the truss and can be employed over or underneath sheathing.
D-ring Anchors - These devices, which are frequently used as permanent anchors, include a single or dual D-ring attachment.
SRL Cradle Anchors - These rotating anchors are only for use with self-retracting lifelines (SRLs), allowing personnel to operate safely on roofs with these connectors.
Post Anchors - In addition to providing workers with 360° movement, these devices raise the anchor point above the foot-level surface.
Because roofs can be made of wood or metal, make sure your anchors are designed for the surface you'll be working on.
Some anchorages have comparable specifications.
Sewn Web Anchors - These devices are available in pass-through styles, in which the anchor is wrapped around the anchorage and through a second D-ring on the strap, or choker versions, in which the anchor is wrapped around the anchorage and through a cinch loop. Both are long-lasting and lightweight.
Cable Sling Anchors - If you're concerned about sharp edges, you can loop these anchors around the anchorage for a solid attachment.
Suspended, Drop-via Anchors - This mechanism is perfect for installing the anchor via an above opening in concrete, grating, or steel deck.
Heat, welding spatter, sparks, and arc-flash are all common applications for multi-purpose anchors. The material of the anchor dictates its suitability for certain conditions, thus follow the advice of your Competent Person.
Some applications, such as window washing, necessitate the use of specific types of anchors. In these cases, you will require one of the following:
Strut Anchors - These anchors are used when workers need to travel horizontally along above struts. These gadgets are simple to install and relocate when necessary.
Parapet Anchors - For quick and safe use, clip these anchors onto parapets and certified guardrail anchorages.
Window and Door Jamb Anchors - If the windows and doors in a building have not yet been installed, you can use these devices to temporarily attach these areas.
Rail Anchors - These anchors allow workers on elevated railroad trestles and rails to travel firmly along the rails without jeopardizing their safety.
The available anchorages for each of the following categories may necessitate the use of penetrating fasteners. To achieve a secure attachment, you must insert your anchors straight into the anchoring, entering the structure.
Anchors can be attached around structures rather than into the substrate at some job sites. To support the worker, these devices use friction or a device wrapped around the anchoring. You won't require a piercing device if you can utilize an anchor with a clamp, pass-through or choker style, cable sling, or interlocking plate design. Non-penetrating alternatives include mobile anchors such as beam trolleys and counterweight devices.
Because there are so many various types of anchors, the design of these devices varies greatly. Having said that, every anchor has a few basic components in common.
To begin, each anchor must have a connecting point where you will attach the lifeline or lanyard to the gadget. This connection point is usually a D-ring or an O-ring. Anchor points that use a carabiner or interlocking plates to fasten the connector to the anchor are also possible.
These elements must allow for a clean and compatible connection point. The connector (D-ring or O-ring, for example) must be larger than the snap hook on the lanyard or lifeline. In the graphic below, you can see which connections are incompatible and risky to the worker:
An anchor is required whenever your personnel require a fall safety device, such as when working at a height. This encompasses both active and passive devices, while most scenarios involving an anchor are classified as active fall protection.
Before employing an anchoring, be sure it is rated for the application. A work positioning anchoring may only meet the lower static load requirement of 3,000 lb. instead of the 5,000 lb. fall arrest anchorages, therefore it may not be able to withstand the force of a fall. Before using any anchor or anchorage, always consult with your Qualified Person. An anchor that is already installed on a jobsite may not be rated for fall arrest, so never assume that an anchor is safe to use until it has been approved.
It's also worth noting that each user can only use one anchoring. You cannot connect numerous workers to the same anchoring connector, regardless of size.